1. In the Milky Way, where are the globular clusters found? a) disk b) spheroid 2. In the Milky Way, where are all/most stars many billions of years old? a) disk b) spheroid 3. Collectively, the nucleus, bulge, and halo are known as the ______. 4. In the Milky Way, where do you find globular clusters? a) disk b) spheroid 5. In the Milky Way, where do you find gas and dust? a) disk b) spheroid 6. In the Milky Way, where do you find HII regions? a) disk b) spheroid 7. What galaxy type does not have dust? 8. In what part of the galaxy are globular clusters found? 9. Is the Milky Way at the center of the Universe? 10. Hydrogen & Helium came from where? 11. Why can't you see the center of the Milky Way in the optical? 12. State the formula for the Hubble Law. 13. What recessional velocity would you expect for a galaxy 100 Mpc distant? Use H=50 km/s/Mpc. 14. What is the approximate diameter of the Milky Way? 15. If the average density of matter in the universe is exactly equal to the critical density Pc, the curvature of space is ______________. 16. What theory was published by Einstein in 1905? 17. What is the Cosmological Principle? 18. The ___________time is when gravity freezes out and all four forces of the Universe come together. 19. Heavy elements were synthesized where? 20. What is the dark matter problem? 21. What are open clusters sometimes called? 22. What is the approximate "size" of the universe? 23. What are the two main observations that support a hot big bang cosmology? 24. Is the sun at the center of the galaxy? 25. What are the two most common spectral types of stars in our galaxy? 26. A galaxy comprised of mostly young stars is: a) disk b) spheroid 27. If the universe has less than the critical density of matter, do we live in an open or closed universe? 28. Who discovered the expansion of the universe? 29. Who discovered interstellar extinction? 30. The Hyades and Pleisades are open or globular clusters? 31. Are most globular clusters old or young? 32. What are the two dominant (most massive) galaxies in the local group? 33. In classifying spiral galaxies, what do the "a" "b" and "c" designations mean? 34. In Hubble's "tuning fork" what are the main types of galaxies? 35. Approximately how many stars does our Galaxy have? 36. If the average density of matter in the universe is greater than the critical density Pc, we live in a(n) ____________ universe. 37. What does C.M.B.R. stand for? 38. What type of clusters are in the disk? 39. What color are cepheid variable stars? 40. What is cosmology? 41. What are the four types of galaxies? 42. What is evidence of the Big Bang Theory? 43. When galaxies come together do the stars collide or pass through each other? 44. How do you find the age of a star cluster? 45. What is the root cause of these two phenomena: galaxy peculiar velocities galaxy clustering 46. There are 3.26 light-years in a parsec. How many light years in a Mpc? 47. What is the "peculiar velocity" of a galaxy? 48. How many light years in a parsec? 49. State the "Fermi Paradox"? 50. What is on the left hand side of the equal sign of the Drake equation? 51. Do astronomers think that UFO abduction stories are valid? 52. What are the two types of radio emissions looked for in current SETI programs? 53. What is the "water hole"?
1. spheroid 2. spheroid 3. spheroid 4. spheroid 5. disk 6. disk 7. elliptical 8. halo, bulge, or spheroid 9. no 10. nucleosyntheses in the big bang 11. too much dust extinction 12. v=Hd 13. v=Hd =(50 km/s/Mpc)(100 Mpc) =5000 km/s 14. 30 kiloparsecs, 30,000 parsecs, or 100,000 light-years 15. flat 16. the special theory of relativity 17. the idea that on large scales, the universe looks the same at all locations and in every direction 18. Planck 19. in the interiors of massive stars (and in supernova explosions) 20. the luminous mass of a cluster is not large enough to account for the motions of the galaxy thus a large amount of unobserved mass must be present between the galaxies 21. associations or Galactic Clusters 22. 10-15 billion light years, or 3,000-6,000 Mpc 23. Expanding Universe (Hubble Law) and the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation 24. No (it's 8 kpc out, in the midplane of the disk) 25. K and M-type 26. disk 27. open 28. Hubble 29. Trumpler 30. open 31. old 32. Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxy 33. Toward "a" galaxies have bigger bulges (relative to the disks) and the spiral arms are wound in a tighter spiral. So "Sc" galaxies have tiny bulges and loosely wound spiral arms. 34. elliptical, S0, spiral, barred spiral 35. 400 billion 36. closed 37. cosmic microwave background radiation 38. open clusters 39. yellow 40. study of the universe 41. a)spirals b)barred spirals c)elliptical d)irregular 42. CMBR (cosmic microwave background radiation) and/or The Hubble expansion of galaxies 43. pass through 44. Find the mass of the brightest & bluest main sequence star. It's main sequence lifetime is approximately the age of the cluster. 45. gravity causes both 46. 3.26 million light years. ("M" = "mega" = millions of) 47. Random, gravity induced motion relative to the Hubble flow. 48. 3.26 49. "Colonization time for the Milky Way is much shorter than the age of the Galaxy, so if even one civilization has arisen where are they? (They should be here) 50. The number of technologically advanced civilizations in the Milky Way. 51. no 52. a)Beacons: purposeful, loud radio signals b)Leakage, "eavesdropping mode", background signals 53. A wavelength region relatively free of interference, thought to be a likely region to look for extraterrestrial signals.